The literary theory is closely connected with the concept “internal world of the work of literature”. The theme is the basis of the internal world of the literary work. Theme is the fundament of the work of art, everything that includes a subject of the author’s interest, assessment and understanding. Thus, it is necessary to speak of each work of art as the theme and a group of themes from the point of view of the literary theories.
The history of literature is inseparable from the history of the literary theories. Moreover, the history of literature is considerably defined by its functions, specifics and aims. In any case literature was singled out from non-literature; its autonomy among the others forms of creative activity, apparently, assumed the formation of a literary consciousness and, as a result, a literary theory.
In the 19th century (especially in its first third) the development of literature went under the sign of romanticism which resisted the classical and educational rationalism. Originally, the romanticism was strengthened in Germany, having received a deep theoretical justification, and extended on the European continent soon and later in Australia. This art movement marked the world-wide significant shift from traditionalism to the poetics of the author.
In Romanticism of the beginning of the 19th century a scientist considered spirituality to be the main thing in literature; and the idea of spirituality of a human life, of its divine origin to be the specific feature of the whole literary period.
As a literary theory deals with different historical data, its terminology acquires a general character, being distracted from the main features and properties, which define the phenomena of the literary work.
The terms of the literary theory are functional, i.e. they do not so much give the characteristic of the definite features of this concept, but open the function which it carries out, its ratio with the other concepts. For example, characterizing a plot, the theory of literature does not open its definite properties (fantastic, psychological, adventurous, conditional, etc.), but points to its function, and having established this function, correlates a plot to the other components of work. The theoretical concept about a plot can be compared to a noun which demands an adjective for better understanding. This adjective can be given only by the literary historian.
The literary theories of spirituality and psychology of a human nature were correlated with the presence or absence of a reasonable beginning in a person. A spiritual person is the one who acts not under the influence of own soul worries and passions, but who is guided by the requirements of mind and divine beginning.
This hero should get into the secrets of the universe, become an active and creative nature, and lead a decisive fight against the public defects, against all the manifestations of tyranny. In order to implement this program it is necessary for the hero to refuse the aspiration to a personal wellbeing, to bridle own passions, to subordinate the feelings to the public “position”.
The psychological literary …