Treaties negotiated in Vienna and Versailles in achieving European stability

by Ossie Heimann, June 2014

900 words

3 pages


Treaties negotiated in Vienna (1814-1815) and Versailles (1919) in achieving European stability

Congress of Vienna ended the Napoleonic Wars period and provided temporary strengthening of aristocratic feudal relations in Europe. In autumn 1814 Congress of Vienna gathered 216 representatives of all European States. Russia was represented by King Alexander I, Austria – Chancellor Metternich, Prussia – Prince HYPERLINK "" \o "Karl August von Hardenberg" Karl August von Hardenberg , France – Minister of Foreign Affairs Talleyrand. The key players - Russia, England and Austria aimed to restore feudal relations in Europe and redraw the continental political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France. Unusual feature of the "Congress of Vienna" was that members never met in plenary session, and most of the discussions were conducted during the informal meetings between major countries, without a large number of delegates from the smaller states.

Vienna treaty aimed to strengthen the results achieved and prevent re-establishment of Bonaparte’s regime in France and new conquest attempts. Balancing between France and Russia, the Austrian government achieved the opportunity to influent negotiations. England, Russia, Austria and Prussia intended to achieve agreement on all important issues and force France to adopt their solution. But disagreement among them helped Talleyrand supported by Metternich and Kaslri to achieve participation in negotiations. Russia had a big influence over the decisions of Congress because of crucial role in the defeat of Napoleon. Imperial government aimed to strengthen Russian influence in Europe by division of Germany into two powerful states - Austria and Prussia, in order them to counterbalance one another. Aspiring to prevent new intervention from the French royal government, Russia at the same time did not allow its excessive humiliation and weakening, in order to keep the balance of power with German states and England. The Treaty handed biggest part of Poland into possession of Russian Empire.

England aimed to keep the possession of French, Spanish and Dutch colonies captured during Napoleonic wars. British government required the greatest possible weakening of France seeing in it the most dangerous rival.

Austrian policy towards Germany included saving her fragmentation, strengthening feudal-absolutism relations and establishing Viennese government dominant influence over small German states. Viennese government aimed to strengthen its power over Eastern Europe while weakening influence of Russia and Prussia. Vienna Congress created the German Confederation from the German states and possessions of the Austrian Empire primarily with a view to form alliance that could put large forces against France. German Confederation included 34 monarchy and 4 free cities - Hamburg, Bremen, Lubeck and Frankfurt am Main, but in fact the informal leader of the Confederation was Austrian Empire as the strongest country of this union.

Treaty aimed to prevent new aggression from France but the biggest issue was the hazard of the revolutionary and national movement’s whileVienna Treaty ignored the principles of Nationalism and interests of small nations. European countries signed "Holy Alliance" act in order to create alliance that can suppress revolutionary movements in each country. The fear of civil war inside each …

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