Currently, the problem of professional identity of young people is one of the most important in terms of evolution of an individual as a full member of society. Thus, choosing a relevant educational institution, as well as being prepared for possible changes that occur on the way of professional development, is a very responsible step for each person standing on the threshold of making a career choice.
The Theoretical Basis of the Career Choice Problem through Motivational Factors
In the process of examining career choice problem, it is expedient to consider the issue of motivation.
A motivational component that provides transformation of knowledge, skills and abilities into the means of personal and professional growth contributes to the achievement of professional excellence.
Motivation occupies a leading position in the structure of an individual’s behavior and is one of the basic concepts that are used to explain the character of driving forces and activities in general. It is a well-known fact that motivation is an impulse to action, which is associated with a human natural desire to satisfy certain needs. In psychology, motivation refers to a set of external and internal conditions that encourage activities in different individuals. In sociology, the motivation is considered as individual’s perceived need for achieving certain benefits.
Analysis of the studies devoted to the problem of motivation underlying career choices reveals a wide variety of motives that influence of the professional self-efficacy. In addition to economic motives (decent wages, availability of benefits), the psychological reasons, such as self-esteem, recognition by others, job satisfaction, are also important. It is evident that these kinds of motives are based on the study of human needs, which gave rise to two global theories of motivation: the substantive and procedural ones.
Consequently, it can be argued that there are many factors that influence the choice of profession made by young girls and boys: the opinion of parents, peers, and teachers, sex-role factors, the level of intellectual development, personal skills, as well as a personal interest in a particular activity, which is also an important factor.
It is a well-known fact that most potential applicants face many problems, when choosing their future professions. Consequently, confusion, embarrassment, perplexity, and even frustration may accompany a young person. Thus, it is necessary to highlight the so-called external motivational factors influencing an individual’s choice.
Among the external motivational factors, there are pressure factors - various recommendations, advice, guidance from others, examples of movie heroes, or some objective circumstances (health problems). The factors of attraction and repulsion involve the examples from an individual’s immediate environment, the so-called ordinary standards of “social prosperity” (fashion, prestige, prejudice). Moreover, it is expedient to consider the factor of “empty” motivation (this job is easy to learn; my friends did so; this college is close to my house; the job is not very difficult, etcetera). Socio-economic motivational factors are also very important. Thus, most applicants expect to get a job in demand, which will eventually result in successful employment and decent remuneration.
The impact of internal motivational factors (personal, professional and life …