by Ossie Heimann, June 2014

3000 words

10 pages


1. Difference between functional and product (service) oriented layoutsFunctional oriented layout is a manufacturing or warehouse frame work that arranges its operations in groups according to the function or technology they are used for. For instance, a machine shop, where machines performing similar work are located in one place. All saws in one place and drill in another place. A department store can also be considered to have a functional layout. Several departments exist where different products are sold. For example, a departmental store having a jewelry department, a clothes department and shoes department. This layout is more flexible because the activities involve the use of general purpose equipment. It is also best in performing custom jobs. Product or service oriented layout is where the activities or operations of a warehouse are arranged in the sequence of performing a given production process. The activities are in a sequential line to enhance easy performance of a production process. Product oriented layout can be perfectly observed in the auto assembly. Product layouts are more efficient but there is lack of ability to convert designs in to desired ones fast enough. 11. Converting a functional layout in to a product layoutA functional oriented layout in a departmental organization includes the assignment of single function to each department. There is no cross training of the workers and movement of workers between departments is rare. This functional layout can be transformed to product layout where the workers are allowed to exchange assignments are move from one department to another. The workers get assistance from other colleagues and their main goal is the production of a given product. 3.Environmental benefits of proper automation selectionThere is optimum utilization of facilities as a single machine can be used by several customers. This optimization enhances customer satisfaction to whatever service they are being offeredThere are reduced risks of greenhouse gases emission because the machines are intensive and efficient. Machine use reduces incidences of gas emission since most of them operate electronically. This, in turn, makes sure that the environment is kept safe and clean from any kind of gas pollution. The atmosphere is protected from the dangers of greenhouse gases which can affect the living of humans and animals.Labor efficiency of automated services is about 50% and the machine is not subject to fatigue. The physical effort needed in automated processes is much reduced compared to manually operated activities. The machine can also work for long hours without tiring out as is common in most people. Economic benefits of proper automation selectionRealization of reduced production cost since the returns on investment are much higher than the initial costs. The total income obtained in an automated process is often higher than the initial capital used at the start of the process. This therefore makes automated processes much profitable.Automation is repeatable and reliable hence the products are of high quality having exact specifications desired by customers. Since machines involve feeding in the desired product quality and control of the process, the …

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