The oceanography in the 21 century is the issue of the common interest of government, society and ecologists. Since the Medieval times ocean attracted people for exploring it’s hidden territories. The period of Geographical exploration has opened the era of globalization (international trade, spreading of aboriginal culture and Christianity), colonization (distribution of power between world leaders), and exploitation (slavery in colonies). The meaning of the ocean is still in the focus of the world community due to its natural resources and importance for the climate stability of the Earth. The core question for today is to secure the saving of natural heritage and stop the glaciers melting.
Key words: oceanography, geographical exploration, colonization, glaciers.
Importance of Oceanography in the 21st Century
The purpose of the present issue is to study the meaning of the oceanography for the modern world and retrace its impact on humanity in previous times. For the beginning the paper will focus on the importance of the sailing and navy for the world community. The next part will disclose the correlation between life being and ocean; climate changes, natural resources and society; ocean wealth and anthropological influence. Finally, the political impact of the oceanography will be studied as the key point of world community life in 21 century.
The history of the world is firmly connected with exploring the surrounding world. However, the ocean was among the initial interest of the world civilizations and challenged people from the times of ancient Egyptians. In spite of that, just the period of Geographical Exploration has become the turning point of the evolution that started the process of forming the modern world. Starting from XV century nations that were involved in exploring the world had benefited in plenty of parameters. Spanish and Portuguese nations were the first who dominated the world ocean and conquered new lands. Those pioneers discovered a new ways for traveling and trade that meant new opportunities for countries-metropolises. A new age came in different spheres of life. Sailors that have visited new world came back with knowledge and culture that were unknown for Europeans. Rome and Greece were not already the center of the world as it was considered before.
However, countries that sailed in the era of Geographical Exploration became extremely reach and not only due to trade. Every new traveler tried to adapt his trip and crew to the ocean’s challenges and the navy equipment improved very rapidly (mariner’s compasses, better maps, invention of astrolabe and vessels for traveling - caravels). Besides, Europeans understood very quickly that slaves from new continent could help to deal with the necessity to cultivate new lands. Exactly this period started the colonization and exploitation age in the world history.
European rulers realized quickly that their power is connected with navy and colonies and started the race for obtaining islands and coasts. The piracy became legal and was even encouraged, the weapon was improved in order to allow colonists to capture slaves and fight with competitors at the sea. Hence, the leaders of the world …